Wednesday 27 July 2011

Philip Larkin's Poems


What are days for?
Days are where we live.
They come, they wake us
Time and time over.
They are to be happy in:
Where can we live but days?

Ah, solving that question
Brings the priest and the doctor
In their long coats
Running over the fields. 


If I were called in
To construct a religion
I should make use of water.

Going to church
Would entail a fording
To dry, different clothes;

My liturgy would employ
Images of sousing,
A furious devout drench,

And I should raise in the east
A glass of water
Where any-angled light
Would congregate endlessly.

Thom Gunn's Poems

My Sad Captains

One by one they appear in
the darkness: a few friends, and
a few with historical 
names. How late they start to shine!
but before they fade they stand
perfectly embodied, all

the past lapping them like a 
cloak of chaos. They were men
who, I thought, lived only to
renew the wasteful force they
spent with each hot convulsion.
They remind me, distant now.

True, they are not at rest yet,
but now they are indeed
apart, winnowed from failures,
they withdraw to an orbit
and turn with disinterested 
hard energy, like the stars.

Faustus Triumphant

The dazzled blood 
submits, carries the
flame through me to every
organ till blood itself
is flamy
.........flame animates me
with delight in time's things
so intense that I am
almost lost to time

Ted Hughes' Poems

The Hawk In The Rain

I drown in the drumming ploughland, I drag up
Heel after heel from the swallowing of the earth's mouth,
From clay that clutches my each step to the ankle
With the habit of the dogged grave, but the hawk

Effortlessly at height hangs his still eye.
His wings hold all creation in a weightless quiet,
Steady as a hallucination in the streaming air.
While banging wind kills these stubborn hedges,

Thumbs my eyes, throws my breath, tackles my heart,
And rain hacks my head to the bone, the hawk hangs,
The diamond point of will that polestars
The sea drowner's endurance: And I,

Bloodily grabbed dazed last-moment-counting
Morsel in the earth's mouth, strain to the master-
Fulcrum of violence where the hawk hangs still.
That maybe in his own time meets the weather

Coming the wrong way, suffers the air, hurled upside-down,
Falls from his eye, the ponderous shires crash on him,
The horizon trap him; the round angelic eye
Smashed, mix his heart's blood with the mire of the land.


Terrifying are the attent sleek thrushes on the lawn, 
More coiled steel than living - a poised 
Dark deadly eye, those delicate legs 
Triggered to stirrings beyond sense - with a start, a bounce, 
a stab 
Overtake the instant and drag out some writhing thing. 
No indolent procrastinations and no yawning states, 
No sighs or head-scratchings. Nothing but bounce and stab 
And a ravening second. 

Is it their single-mind-sized skulls, or a trained 
Body, or genius, or a nestful of brats 
Gives their days this bullet and automatic 
Purpose? Mozart's brain had it, and the shark's mouth 
That hungers down the blood-smell even to a leak of its own 
Side and devouring of itself: efficiency which 
Strikes too streamlined for any doubt to pluck at it 
Or obstruction deflect. 

With a man it is otherwise. Heroisms on horseback, 
Outstripping his desk-diary at a broad desk, 
Carving at a tiny ivory ornament 
For years: his act worships itself - while for him, 
Though he bends to be blent in the prayer, how loud and 
above what 
Furious spaces of fire do the distracting devils 
Orgy and hosannah, under what wilderness 
Of black silent waters weep.


Pike, three inches long, perfect 
Pike in all parts, green tigering the gold. 
Killers from the egg: the malevolent aged grin. 
They dance on the surface among the flies. 

Or move, stunned by their own grandeur, 
Over a bed of emerald, silhouette 
Of submarine delicacy and horror. 
A hundred feet long in their world. 

In ponds, under the heat-struck lily pads- 
Gloom of their stillness: 
Logged on last year's black leaves, watching upwards. 
Or hung in an amber cavern of weeds 

The jaws' hooked clamp and fangs 
Not to be changed at this date: 
A life subdued to its instrument; 
The gills kneading quietly, and the pectorals. 

Three we kept behind glass, 
Jungled in weed: three inches, four, 
And four and a half: red fry to them- 
Suddenly there were two. Finally one 

With a sag belly and the grin it was born with. 
And indeed they spare nobody. 
Two, six pounds each, over two feet long 
High and dry and dead in the willow-herb- 

One jammed past its gills down the other's gullet: 
The outside eye stared: as a vice locks- 
The same iron in this eye 
Though its film shrank in death. 

A pond I fished, fifty yards across, 
Whose lilies and muscular tench 
Had outlasted every visible stone 
Of the monastery that planted them- 

Stilled legendary depth: 
It was as deep as England. It held 
Pike too immense to stir, so immense and old 
That past nightfall I dared not cast 

But silently cast and fished 
With the hair frozen on my head 
For what might move, for what eye might move. 
The still splashes on the dark pond, 

Owls hushing the floating woods 
Frail on my ear against the dream 
Darkness beneath night's darkness had freed, 
That rose slowly toward me, watching.

Syllabus- 3rd Semester

E-301 TCL II
Twentieth Century Literature post-1945
Objectives: The objective of the course is to acquaint students, through a study of select literary texts, with the emerging ideas and perceptions since the close of the world wars. More precisely, the students are expected to grasp the search for alternative aesthetics to ‘high’ modern with reference to the prescribed texts.

Unit 1: Cultural Context
1.1. English intellectual tradition post 1945
1.2.Discarding elitism, modernist ‘high art’ by recourse to the         
      models of ‘mass culture’

Unit 2: Poetry
            2.1. Ted Hughes: Hawk in the Rain; Thrushes; Pike
            2.2. R. S Thomas: Postscript; Petition
            2.3. Thom Gunn: My Sad Captains; Faustus Triumphant
            2.4. Seamus Haeney: Requiem for the Croppies; Traditions
            2.5. Philip Larkin: Water; Days
Prescribed Text: The Faber Book of Modern Verse. Ed. M. Roberts, Faber and Faber, 2009.

Unit 3: Fiction
            3.1. Graham Greene: The Heart of the Matter
            3.2. William Golding: Lord of the Flies
            3.3. Kingsley Amis: Lucky Jim / John Fowles: The French Lieutenant’s Woman

Unit 4: Drama
            4.1. Harold Pinter: Birthday Party
            4.2. Osborne: Look Back in Anger
            4.3. Tom Stoppard: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead

Unit 5: Essays
            5.1. Frank Kermode: From ‘Dissociation of Sensibility’
            5.2. Helen Gardner: ‘The Sceptre and the Torch’
            5.3. Wayne C. Booth: From ‘The Rhetoric of Fiction’
            5.4. Northrop Frye: ‘Criticism, Visible and Invisible’
            5.5. Jonathan Culler: ‘Structuralism and Literature’
Prescribed Text: The English Critical Tradition: An Anthology of English Literary Criticism (Vol II). Eds. Ramaswamy and Sthuraman. Macmillan (2004 reprint).

Recommended Reading:
Waugh, Patricia. Harvest of the Sixties: English Literature and its Background, 1960-1990. London: OUP, 1995.

Sinfield, Alan. Literature, Politics and Culture in Post-WarBritain. London, 1989.

Bradbury, Malcolm. The Modern British Novel. OUP, 1993.

Bradbury, Malcolm. The Novel Today: Contemporary Writers on Modern Fiction. OUP, 1997.

Corcoran, Neil. English Poetry since 1940. Longman: 1993.

Morrison, Blake. The Movement: English Poetry and Fiction of the 1950s. OUP, 1980.

Bigsby, C. W. F. Contemporary English Drama, 1981.

Hayman, Ronald. British Theatre Since 1955: A Reassessment. OUP: 1979.

McGowin, Kevin. Graham Greene, The Major Novels: A Centenary. Electica

Babb Howard, S. The Novels of William Golding. Columbias,Ohio State University Press, 1970.

Bergonzi, Bernard. A Study in Greene: Graham Greene and the Art of the Novel. OUP, 2006.

                                   E- 302 AL I
American Literature I: Up to 1900
This course has been designed to provide the students with a historical perspective of the development of American literature from the Pre-Colombian period up to 1900. This would enable them to view/review the growth of American literature as a discipline in relation to its context. The ‘canon’ has been shifted to give space to the indigenous voices and texts selected for study are to be studied both diachronically and synchronically in relation to their contexts.
Course Content:
Unit 1: The Cultural Context
1.1.Pre-Colombian Americas
      1.2.Colonial America
      1.3.American Revolution and Independence
1.4.American Civil War and Emancipation

Unit 2: Poetry
       2.1.. Anne Bradstreet: Here Follows Some Verses upon the
            Burning of Our House
 2.2..Phyllis Wheatley: On Being Brought from Africa toAmerica
2.3.Lydia Howard Huntley Sigourney: Our Aborigines
2.4.Edgar Allan Poe: The Raven
       2.5. Walt Whitman: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d
2.6.Emily Dickinson: [The Soul selects her own Society - ], [Because I could not stop for Death - ]
2.7.Paul Laurence Dunbar: We Wear the Mask
       2.8..Native American Chants and Songs

Unit 3: Short Stories
3.1.Native American stories of the beginning of the world 
3.2.Native American trickster tales
3.3.African American folk narratives
3.4.E A Poe: ‘The Purloined Letter’
3.5Henry James: ‘The Turn of the Screw’
Unit 4: Novels:
4.1.James Fenimore Cooper: The Last of the Mohicans /Mark Twain:
      The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
4.2.Herman Melville: Billy Budd, Sailor / N Hawthorne: The Scarlet
4.3.Kate Chopin: The Awakening / Harriet Beecher Stowe:Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Unit 5: Non-fiction
5.1.Christopher Columbus: From Letter to Luis de Santangel
      Regarding the First Voyage (February 15, 1493)
5.2.Benjamin Franklin: Remarks Concerning the Savages of North
5.3.Ralph Waldo Emerson: ‘Nature’/ ‘The American Scholar’/ ‘Self-
5.4.Henry David Thoreau: Walden or Life in the Woods
5.5Sojourner Truth: ‘Ar’n’t I a Woman?’ from the Anti-Slavery Bugle,
      June 21,1851 and from The Narrative of Sojourner Truth, 1878
5.6.Frederick Douglass: What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?
5.7  Zitkala Sa (Gertrude Simmons Bonnin): FromImpressions of an Indian Childhood / Black Hawk: fromAutobiography
5.8  Frederick Jackson Turner: from The Significance of the Frontier in American History

Texts prescribed:
 Baym, Nina, Wayne Franklin, Philip F. Gura and Arnold Krupat (editors). The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Vol A: American Literature Beginnings to 1820, Seventh Edition, New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.
Baym, Nina, Arnold Krupat and Robert S. Levine (editors).The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Vol B: American Literature 1820-1865, Seventh Edition, New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.
Baym, Nina, Arnold Krupat and Jeanne Campbell Reesman (editors). The Norton Anthology of American Literature, Volume C: American Literature 1865-1914, Seventh Edition,New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.
Gates, Henry Louis and Nellie Y McKay (editors). The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, Second Edition, New York: W.W. Norton, 2004.
Kearns, Frances E. Black Identity: A Thematic Reader. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.

                                             E-303 WLT (Open Choice Paper)
World Literature in Translation
Objective: The course has been designed to acquaint students with literary representation of cultures beyond English literature through the study of a few selected texts originally written in languages such as Greek, Sanskrit, Roman, Norwegian, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Egyptian, Turkish, Chinese and Japanese that have been passed into the literary canon.

Unit 1:  Greek/ Roman/Sanskrit

1.1 Sophocles: Oedipus Rex/ Aristophanes: The Frogs
1.2 Plautus: Epidicus
1.3 Kalidasa: Meghadutam/ Shudraka: Mricchakatika (The Little Clay Cart)
Unit 2:  Russia/ France/ Germany
2.1. Dostoevsky: Crime and Punishment/ Chekhov : Cherry Orchard
2.2.Kafka : The Trial/ Baudelaire: Poems to be selected by teacher  / Rimbaud: Poems to be selected by teacher.
2.3.Goethe: Faust-Part-I/ Brecht : Galileo
Unit 3:  Norway/ Sweden/ Italy
3.1.Henrik Ibsen: An Enemy of the People
3.2.Luigi Pirandello: Six Characters in Search of an Author
3.3. Johan August Strindberg: The Ghost Sonata/ Dario Fo:Accidental Death of an Anarchist
Unit 4: Latin America
4.1. Octavio Paz (Mexico): Poems to be selected by the teacher
4.2. Gabriel Garcia Marquez (Colombia): One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) / Love in the Time of Cholera (1985)
4.3. Pablo Neruda (Chile): Poems to be selected by the teacher/ Miguel Ángel Asturias (Guatemala): The President

Unit 5: Middle East/
 China/ Japan
5.1.Naguib Mahfouz (Egypt): Palace Walk
5.2.Ferit Orhan Pamuk (Turkey): My Name is Red
5.3.Gao Xingjian (Chinese): Soul Mountain/ Osamu Dazai(Japan): The Setting Sun

Recommended reading:

Auerbach, Erich. Dante: Poet of the Secular World Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: NYRB Classics, 2007.
________ Mimesis: Representation of Reality in Western Literature, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton UniversityPress, 1954.
Bownas, Geoffrey and Anthony Thwaite (eds). The Penguin Book of Japanese Verse, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977 (For Basho)
Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton UniversityPress, 1990
Domorsch, David. What is World Literature? PrincetonUniversity Press, 2003.
Ellmann, Richard (ed.). The Modern Tradition: Backgrounds of Modern Literature. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Gassner and Quinn ed. The Reader’s Encyclopedia of World Drama. Dover Publications 2002.
Jacobus, Lee A. Bedford Introduction to Drama . New York:St. Martin’s Press, 1989.
John D. Yohannan ed. A Treasury of Asian Literature. New York: Penguin Publishers, 1994.
Loilee, Frederic ed ( Trns. By Power, M. Douglas) A short History of Comparative Literature: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Hodder and Stoughton, 1906.
Raymond Williams. Drama from Ibsen to Brecht. London: Chatto and Windus,1968.

                                                      E-304 (a)  TSTP
Translation Studies: Theory and Practice
Objective: The course is designed to familiarise students with the theoretical concepts and practice of translation in the western and eastern traditions and to help them to get exposure to the dynamics of translation and enable them to understand the process of translation and appreciate linguistic, cultural and philosophical issues involved in this process through the study of some theoretical positions and the translation of a few important literary texts.

Unit 1: Translation: Concepts and History
1.1  Development of the concept of translation and a brief history of translation theory
1.2  Fidelity and Transparency; Relevance; Function and Reception; Formal Equivalence and Dynamic Equivalence; Types of Translation; Loss and Gain: Decoding and Recoding;
      Correspondence and Identity; Untranslatability; Translation Shifts; Metaphors and Idioms in Translation; Transcription; Transliteration; Transcreation; Translation and Ethics;      
       Translation, Imitation, Adaptation and Parody, etc. (Susan Bassnett : Translation Studies)

Unit 2:  Theories of Translation-I
2.1. Roman Jakobson (4.7)*
2.2. Jiri Levy (4.8)*
2.3. Eugene Nida (4.9)*

Unit 3: Theories of Translation-II

3.1. Walter Benjamin (4.4)*
3.2. Andre Lefevere (5.5)* 
3.3. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (5.11)*

 (* Unit 2 & 3 Chapters selected from Daniel Weissbort & Astradur Eysteinsson (ed.,): Translation – Theory and Practice: A Historical Reader, OUP, 2006.)

Unit 4: Poetry and Drama in Translation
4.1.'A Certain Sense – Poems by Jibanananda Das', Translated by Various Hands, 1998, Sahitya Akademi, Kolkata.)
4.2.Badal Sarkar: Evam Indrajit: Three-act Play. (tr. by Girish Karnad. Oxford University Press. 1975.)
4.3Tagore’s poetry in translation/ Raktakarabi
Unit: 5: Fictional prose in Translation

5.1.Rabindranath Tagore: Gora  (tr. Sujit Mukherjee, Sahitya Akademi, India. 1998)/ Pather Panchali
5.2.Mahasweta Devi: ‘Breast Giver’ (in Breast Stories,tr Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Seagull Books; Calcutta; 1997.)

Recommended reading:
Kelly, L.G. (1979). The True Interpreter: a History of Translation Theory and Practice in the West. New York,St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312 – 82057-7.
Bassnett Susan, Andre Lefevre and Andre Lefevere (Ed)Translation, History and Culture. Continuum International Publishing Group. 1996
Catford J. C.: A Linguistic Theory of Translation, LondonOUP, 1965.
Chaudhuri Sukanta, Translation and Understanding,New Delhi: OUP, 1999.
Holmes, James (ed.): The Nature of Translation: Essays on the Theory and Practice of Literary Translation, The Hague Mouton, 1970.
Kelly L. G. True Interpreter : A History of Translation Theory and Practice in the West, Oxford, Blackwell, 1979.
Jakobson, Roman (ed.): 'On Linguistic Aspects of Translation', in R. Brower (ed.) On Translation,Cambridge Mass Harvard UP, 1959.
Levy Jiri : 'Translation as a Decision Process' in To Honour Roman Jacobson II, The Hauge, Mouton, pp. 1111-1182.
 Mukherjee, Sujit: Translation as Discovery And Other Essays: On Indian Literature In English Translation, Paperback, Orient Longman. 1994.
       Nida, Eugene Anwar Dil, (ed.), Language Structure and Translation, Stanford University Press, 1975.
Steneir George: After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation, OUP, London, 1975.
Parks Tim, Translating Style: A Literary Approach to Translation—A Translation Approach to Literature,Manchester, St. Jerome, 2007, ISBN 1-905763-04-2.
Rainer Schulter and John Biguenet, eds., Theories of Translation: An Anthology of Essays from Dryden to Derrida. Chicago, 1992.
Susan Bassnett and Harish Trivedi, eds. Post-Colonial Translation: Theory and Practice (London & New York: Routledge, 1999).

                                                                                                                                                                           E-304 (C)
Principles of English Language Teaching (PELT)
Objectives: The course intends to give students theoretical orientations to basic concepts in ELT. Seeking to theorise on practice, the course aims at updating students on methodological issues, crystallizing their own opinion on the rationale underlying learner independence and learner training. The course also intends to orient students towards various schools of psychology and their influence on language teaching methodology, and give them an understanding of classroom interaction, the objective being to introduce them to the nature and types of interaction modes in the language classroom.
Course Content:
Unit 1 – Methods: Integrating Theory and Practice
1.1.The concept of  method in ELT
1.2.Theories affecting method
1.3.Design (method) and Syllabus
1.4.The Participants and the Instructional Materials
Unit 2 – Psychology for Language Teachers (I)
2.1. Cognitive Development
        2.1.1. Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development
        2.1.2. Educational implications of Piaget’s theory
        2.1.3. Bruner and Constructivism
        2.1.4. Vygotsky’s theory of Social Interactionism
2.2. Humanism
       2.2.1. Origins of Humanism and its basic principles
       2.2.2. Some exponents: Erikson, Maslow, Carl Rogers
Unit 3 – Psychology for Language Teachers (II)
3.1. Memory
       3.1.1. Memory and Language Learning
       3.1.2. Stages in Memory, its structure and organization
3.2. Motivation
        3.2.1. The meaning of Motivation
        3.2.2. Psychological views of Motivation
        3.2.3. Motivation in Language Learning
Unit 4 – Understanding Classroom Interaction
4.1. Meaning of Interaction
4.2. Interaction in the classroom
4.3. The roles of teachers and learners in Classroom Interaction
Unit 5 – Analysing Classroom Interaction
5.1. Interaction analysis framework
       5.1.1. Flanders’ Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC)
       5.1.2. Moskowitz’s Foreign Language Interaction Analysis (FLINT)
5.2. Classroom language analysis
5.3. Issues in Classroom Interaction
       5.3.1. The role of questions in Classroom Interaction
       5.3.2. Feedback and error correction

Recommended Reading:
Chaudron, Craig. Second Language Classrooms.Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1988.
Larsen-Freeman, D. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford U P, 2004.
Malamah-Thomas, A. Classroom Interaction. Oxford: OxfordU P, 1987.
Richards, J. C., and T. S. Rodgers. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge, Mass:Cambridge U P, 1986.
Williams, Marion, and Robert L. Burden. Psychology for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1997.

Course E: 305 SHKP
Objective: Shakespeare's corpus that has been found endlessly fascinating on different levels – linguistically, historically, politically, socially, and culturally – received sustained attention through successive generations and was reconstructed and reinvented through the ages through diverse institutions in specific contexts. The Course aims at exploring the ways in which Shakespeare has been "reinvented" since the 17th century to the present and seeks to explore the dynamics of contemporary Shakespeare studies realised in terms of the multipolar contexts of Shakespearean texts as well as the plurality of the Shakespearean critical discourses. The students are expected to develop a thorough idea of the Elizabethan stage and staging conditions. In addition to Shakespeare-criticism down the ages and selected texts, the course also attempts to acquaint the students with the analysis of a few film adaptations of Shakespearean plays.

Unit 1: Tradition
1.1 The Elizabethan Stage
1.2   Shakespeare criticism down the ages

Unit 2:  Comedies
2.1  The Taming of the Shrew / A Midsummer Night’s Dream 
2.2  Much Ado About Nothing / As You Like It.

Unit 3: History plays/ Tragedies
3.1 Richard III
3.2  Julius Caesar/ Hamlet
3.3  King Lear
Unit 4: Dark Comedies/Problem plays
4.1  Measure for Measure
4.2  The Merchant of Venice
4.3  The Tempest
Unit 5: Shakespeare Adaptation: Film and Theatre
5.1. Macbeth/Othello
5.2. A Midsummer Night’s Dream/ Comedy of Errors

Recommended reading:

Students are expected to use the New Cambridge Shakespeare or Arden / New Arden Shakespeare for the prescribed texts. 

Bevington, David. The Norton Anthology of Renaissance Drama. NY: Norton, 1998.
Beja, Morris. Film & Literature, an introduction, Longman, 1979.
Bradley, A. C. Shakespearean Tragedy London, Macmillan, 1905.
Brown, John Russell. Shakespeare and his Comedies.Routledge,1957.
----. Shakespeare’s Plays in Performance. (New and Revised) Paperback, 2000.
Dowden, Earnest. Shakespeare: A Critical Study of His Mind and Art, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2003.
Gurr, Andrew, The Shakespearean Stage, 1574-1642 CUP, 1992
Horowitz, David. Shakespeare: An Existentialist View, Hill and Wang, 1965.
Leech, Clifford, ed., Shakespeare : The Tragedies : A Collection of Critical Essays, Chicago : University ofChicago Press, 1966.
Lerner, Laurence ed. Shakespearean Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin Paperback,
Lerner, Laurence ed. Shakespearean Comedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin Paperback,
Kott, Jan, Shakespeare, Our Contemporary, London,Methuen, 1967.
McDonald, Russ Ed., Shakespeare: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory 1945-2000.
Wiley-Blackwell, 2004.
Peter Saccio, Shakespeare’s English Kings: History, Chronicle and Drama, OUP, 1977.
Tillyard, E. M. W. Shakespeare’s Problem Plays. Univ of Toronto Pr. 1949.
Wells, Stanley. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies, CUP, 1986.